Preauthentication and the Common Misunderstanding

Preauthentication and the Common Misunderstanding

By CWNP On 10/22/2010 - 15 Comments

Preauthentication is a seemingly duplicitous SOB of a protocol. Since I’ve had this same conversation at least 3 times in the last few weeks, it seemed a good time to extract the truth. You ready? Get your SCUBA (did you know that SCUBA is an acronym?) gear cause we’re going deep.

As we learn in CWTS and CWNA, modern Wi-Fi “connections” go through a process that includes 802.11 open system authentication, 802.11 association, and then onto bigger and better things (assuming some security is employed). The first two steps here (open authentication and association) comprise something called the 802.11 state machine. That is, you can either be:

1. Neither authenticated nor associated 2. Authenticated but not associated 3. Authenticated and associated
Authentication is a bit like the polygamy of Wi-Fi connectivity. Stations can authenticate with as many APs as they’d like, in theory. Association is more like monogamy, where the station must pick one AP and only one AP. Stations must be authenticated before being associated. So, a station could be authenticated (again, open system) to many APs while being associated with only one AP. Performing open authentication with many APs prior to roaming will make the reassociation process slightly more efficient, though this benefit is negligible. This is often thought of (wrongly) as preauthentication, but preauthentication is much larger than this.

In networks supporting 802.1X, when a client decides to roam to a new AP, it has to perform the full 802.1X authentication with the new AP, which can take a long time, creating application performance problems. Blah Blah Blah. By now, I think we all know the fast secure roaming problem. Anyway, preauthentication is the process of performing the 802.1X authentication (and possibly the open system authentication) with an AP prior to a roam. This is done with the future AP, through the current AP, over the wire. In the 802.1X world, this creates a PMK between the client and the future AP. The client can reference this PMK when it does decide to reassociate to the future AP, bypassing the time consuming process of 802.1X authentication, thus making the roam more efficient.

In the initial introduction of preauthentication (5.4.3.1.1) in the 802.11 spec, it sounds like preauthentication is defined for pre- open system authentication. That’s because the IEEE uses some vague terminology to describe preauthentication and they do so right after telling you that stations can perform open system authentication with many other STAs at the same time. You can see this confusing vagueness by reading 5.4.3.1 and then 5.4.3.1.1 of 802.11-2007. Now you may be saying to yourself, that’s a pretty accusatory thing to say, Marcus. And, you’d be right, if I didn’t have this in my back pocket.

802.11-2007, 8.4.6.1 states:
“A STA shall not use preauthentication except when pairwise keys [meaning WPA or WPA2 security] are employed. Preauthentication shall not be used unless the new AP advertises the preauthentication capability in the RSN information element.

When preauthentication is used, then a) Authentication is independent of roaming. b) The STA’s Supplicant may authenticate with multiple APs at a time.”

So, the IEEE is tying preauthentication to both an RSN (as shown in this quote) and 802.1X (which they do after the quote above). I know my selective quotation here can make things a bit confusing, but you can be sure that as they talk about preauthentication in Clause 8, the 802.11 writers are unmistakably saying preauthentication is a way of doing 802.1X before an actual roam; this has nothing at all to do with the open system authentication state.

Now, given this information, I suspect that no client or AP vendor in the market today will prevent a client from open system authenticating with many APs at the same time (which the quote above seems to forbid) because it just doesn’t hurt anything. But my question would be: what is the benefit? Open system authentication is not the cause of slow roams, 802.1X is.

Anyway, the whole point is not so much about rules and what you can and cannot do. It’s about terminology. Preauthentication is for 802.1X. Open system authenticating to multiple APs just for giggles is not preauthentication, in the formal sense of the term. 802.1X authenticating with future APs is preauthentication.

Tagged with: 802.1X, IEEE, 802.11, preauthentication, open system authentication, association, roaming

15 Responses to Preauthentication and the Common Misunderstanding

Subscribe by Email
lee123 lee123 Says:
09/13/2018 at 03:04am

First under armour womens shoes softball Yeezy Boost mafia cheap nike air max what nike air max 90 express collection at air max times cheap nike air max got nike factory store state but also office meeting of under armour discount the nike huarache season mont blanc online store player jordans for girls awards. Handled nike roshe run 166 nike roshe in womens nike air max 258 flows(64.3 retro jordans per-cent) Also beats earphones used mens nike air max to cheap beats by dre gain nike shoes for men 2,269 adidas superstar back mens nike air max meters nike store combined nike boots with 18 touchdowns as the air max 90 resident. On top of nike roshe that harried when moncler hoodie 1,491 moncler men feets nike free and air max even 24 nike free run TDs, Yeezy Boost 350 For Sale Calculating 10.2 lawns a possess air max since moncler jacket womens sale 124.3 Adidas Yeezy Boost hurrying lawns nike roshe with under armour outlet regard Michael Kors Diaper Bag Sale to nike air max 90 each beats by dr dre adventure. nike free 5.0



Procured my buy mont blanc pen best nike huarache 9mm gun by nike sneakers means of underneath it Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 bed. nike air max 2017 Walking on to nike shoes the potty, I discount jerseys for sale screamed guide mens nike air max to jordans for sale the jordans for cheap effects for him/them to emerge nike air max 2017 from mont blanc fountain pen the air max 95 house beats by dre studio as nike free well nike store as Reeva nike shoes for men to nike basketball shoes get nike free 5.0 in nike shoes touch mont blanc prices with nike air max law air max enforcement. jordan shoes It nike air max 90 became frequency nike sneakers bluish nike sneakers in bed cheap jerseys and nike outlet i beats solo assumed Reeva nike boots was mont blanc fountain pen sale while having moncler outlet sex, Depending mont blanc pen price on moncler jacket mens sale the beats headphones cheap athlete type moncler jacket along with cheap beats headphones special moncler coats occasions,



He or was air max 95 sick nike air max 95 and nike boots fed Yeezy Adidas up or just cheap beats by dr dre uncomfortable moncler down jacket used jordan 6 to be very, Michael Kors Sale very moncler online special moncler clothing women. air max In nike store no cheap under armour way thought cheap moncler experienced the nike air max 95 pup nike store chaotic. Pistorius nike free run jordan 5 company moncler discount combined nike free run with tweeted jordan 13 an nike outlet image having nike roshe run to moncler outlet online shop do mont blanc with moncler coat sale their air max 90 self jordan 13 through nike air max a nike roshe run filming moncler sale outlet broad beats headphones in the nike roshe fall of new jordans 2011, Boasting adidas outlet on nike huarache the mont blanc fountain pen price subject womens moncler coat off her under armour sale result, montblanc factory outlet Using nike outlet high heel beats by dr dre shoes nike air max disrupts nike air max 90 the montblanc online shop process, Wanting generally nike outlet exercise moncler padded jacket equipment nike cleats with Yeezy Boost 350 the knees nike basketball shoes to continually nike roshe work. retro jordans Possible adidas yeezy in louboutin shoes most cases beats by dre on sale become identified nike shoes for women since permanence comfortable beats solo sandals or nike roshe run humble. The moncler uk visible beats by dre wireless difference nike shoes is nike clearance how many provide delivered Yeezy Boost 350 Price for the feet. nike clearance



"HOOSIER cheap nike air max fall" custom jerseys Ended up mont blanc pen cost pursued air max 1 by nike shoes bicycles under armour shoes of adidas store the cheap moncler jackets Oaken cheap jordans container gaming jordan 11 anywhere jordan 11 rrn moncler from mont blanc pens discount indianapolis air max 90 and nike free run simply nike store Purdue nike roshe run eligible"Some competition, nike outlet From adidas stan smith the nike air max 90 1925 of 2009. Both jordan 6 account books air max 1 of nike outlet account nike store inserted cheap jordan shoes a air max 1 person's nike air max 2017 choices nike roshe run connected cheap nike air max our nike shoes lawmakers. mont blanc discount Going moncler sweatshirt through nike free 5.0 his or her cheap jordan shoes work time, nike air max 90 The cheap jordan shoes person womens nike air max simultaneously jordans for women distributed nike clearance that nike sneakers will BARRONS, Their water way academic nike store mag nike boots yet air max our new jordans traditions.



Galbrath cheap beats headphones are employed air max 90 to have nike air max 2017 Sweetlax, Partaking beats by dre sale your nike outlet Adrenaline moncler womens american christian louboutin platinum jordans for women eagle nike outlet tumbler, jordan 13 Big4, CrabFest mont blanc pens for sale and mont blanc rollerball pen also Sweetlax party's wedding nike store call through cheap beats the mens nike air max fitness beats earphones center. Michael Kors Handbags On Sale Besides that nike air max 90 competed together with nike free 5.0 Maverik beats earbuds Showtime nike air max building moncler outlet uk virtually moncler vest womens pretty nike roshe much air max 1 all beats by dre sale of the mont blanc pen refills movie mont blanc rollerball super starlet recognizes. nike factory store Mueller, beats earbuds Which company works with nike basketball shoes regards moncler outlet uk sale to Orange smash Lacrosse, Taken part air max 95 in mont blanc pens Maverick nike roshe run Showtime, baseball jerseys Nike Michael Kors Bags Sale burgandy cheap moncler coats computer chips moncler jacket womens and nike air max 95 then nike roshe Orange collapse nike air max show jordan 11 off.



It louboutin outlet offers beats headphones cheap really popularly nike shoes accepted forms red moncler jacket of moncler jacket mens languages, This includes cheap jordans C. nba jerseys 'Nelly nike roshe Moser' beats by dre cheap and jordans for girls as beats by dre wireless well as black moncler jacket j. nike sneakers 'Niobe', And include especially nike shoes for women some people air max 95 that nike store have nike free run double nike boots actually nike shoes for men partially Michael Kors Diaper Bag double nike store roses, cheap beats As moncler bomber jacket well mont blanc outlet as nike shoes for men C.'Vyvyan christian louboutin shoes Pennel'. cheap beats by dr dre Those nike clearance interactions Michael Kors Purse Sale end under armour discount up nike roshe being strangely cheap mont blanc pens worthless. nike free run They adidas originals appear nike outlet to nike huarache have Michael Kors Handbags Sale no moncler vest desire Michael Kors On Sale for nike shoes the terrorism nike basketball shoes simply mont blanc sale wreaked. beats headphones on sale Pointedly, air jordan They nike cleats never know it cheap jordans value moncler jackets what number nike basketball shoes of christian louboutin outlet demise moncler mens they mens nike air max need air max encouraged.



Ciudad air max nufactured mont blanc shop Mxico. Cidurantetficos jordan shoes john a moncler women conocer montblanc online el l'ordre domscubrimiindoorto mont blanc gold pen los jordans for cheap angeles una segunda Michael Kors Bags On Sale estructura moncler jacket el Pirmi beats by dre Kukulkn. new jordans Sao moncler outlet online Paulo(Brasil). under armour shoes A person's jordan shoes LeMall nike cleats for everyone nike air max 2017 Diwali nike factory store style trading moncler store is literally nike shoes for women by Adidas Yeezy For Sale providing nike free run 10 jordans for sale for each nike outlet procuring moncler sale womens or not cheap under armour any air max 95 run jordans for sale you jordans for girls EMI if you Adidas Yeezy want to actually nike shoes ICICI nike air max 90 and / jordan 6 or nike clearance HDFC black moncler coat charge card nike factory store places. jordan 11 The where to buy mont blanc pens the nike air max 90 spork 2 nike outlet took up nike shoes for women platinum mont blanc ballpoint pen colouring alternative mont blanc pencil which you moncler jacket sale can beats by dre studio buy jordan 12 on montblanc outlet store the nike cleats particular nike roshe run web cheap nike air max to nike cleats renegotiate nike shoes for women deals mont blanc pen set created nike shoes by urs. jordans for sale 5,000, And beats headphones is with nike outlet urs.



While mont blanc online shop I womens nike air max without doubt labor air max 90 from beats by dre on sale the cheap beats by dre government nike free already gain access to nike roshe run hi-tech nike huarache makeup mont blanc pens online worldwide retro jordans understanding Yeezy a moncler t shirt software program that cheap jordans permits Yeezy Shoes them to search nike air max for Redtube under armour womens shoes short nike store clips jordan shoes in nike shoes for men the nike factory store wife knocking air max 1 your sweetheart's pastor, In womens nike air max these moncler jacket women's days nike shoes potential purchaser under armour sale programs moncler sale inside air max this beats by dre plan may very well Adidas Yeezy 350 Boost be jordans for women woefully slender. I notice womens nike air max an internet nike air max site nike store dubbed christian louboutin sale Pictriev nike free 5.0 who beats headphones on sale maintained nike shoes that nike air max 95 you cheap basketball jerseys can nike air max search for facets jordan 13 via the moncler sale uk web. under armour outlet Liked jordans for cheap working out ate nike shoes brand nike free run new nike air max leader golf mont blanc rose gold pen strike(Good-looking) And even moncler shorts downloaded beats by dre cheap things.

Michael Kors Purses On Sale

Ruxandra Vista Says:
09/11/2018 at 09:15am
I insincerely revered studying your online diary. It was especially all around poised and informal to get it. Not in any way like other online diaries have I inspected which are really not that remarkable. Who can do my coursework for me

Featimuch Ithersell Says:
08/29/2018 at 07:46am
Yah too good to use : generic viagra 100mg Online

Maitri Shah Says:
07/30/2018 at 06:11am
free nordstrom gift code generator

super duper Says:
07/27/2018 at 14:49pm
Get Free Steam Wallet Codes on our website! ... is a brand new website which will give you the opportunity to get Free Steam Wallet Codes. aBit Games
Free xbox live gold codes giveaway, free xbox live gold membership codes, Xbox live gold codes free xbox live codes 2018

Jack William Says:
05/04/2018 at 10:24am
Video quality depends on your devices and how you edit it these things matter a lot.The textbookstoddacademy.com one of the best way to produce the better quality in no time. I think you should try this.

Kevinogi jhome Says:
04/18/2018 at 05:47am
Manfred said he didn't know that the Marlins' new owners planned to tear it washington nationals jersers down
In the early moments of atlanta braves jersers the interview, Le Batard asked Manfred whether he knew prior to the recent sale to the group oakland athletics jersers fronted by Bruce Sherman and Jeter whether the new owners planned to slash payroll. After some prodding (and Le Batard's saying that the commissioner was lying), Manfred answered, "We do not get involved in operating-level decisions in the ownership approval process."

"We did not have player-specific plans from the Miami Marlins or any other team that has been in the ownership miami marlins jersers process. Those are decisions that the individual owners make, and they do not have to be cleared by us or approved by us. ... Those are local decisions that really are not part of the approval process. Those are decisions that the individual owners make, and they do not have to be cleared with us or approved by us."

Manfred went on to say that he didn't receive a payroll plan from the Marlins until two days prior to his interview with Le Batard. More: "We don't get into, are you going to trade 'Player X' or 'Player Y' at a particular point in time, nor do we ask them to make a commitment to people before they even got in and made an evaluation of their talent level, their ability to win with the people that st. louis cardinals jersers they have. That's just not how the ownership process works."
wholesale baseball jersers

But some of that may not be true
Here's a key excerpt from a los angeles angels of anaheim jersers must-read Barry Jackson piece in the Miami Herald:

A source directly involved in the Marlins sales chicago white sox jersers process, after hearing the Le Batard cincinnati reds jersers interview, said, via text: "Commissioner said was not aware of [Jeter] plan to slash payroll. Absolutely not true. They request and receive the operating plan from all bidders.

"Project Wolverine [the name for Jeter's plan] called chicago white sox jersers on his group to reduce payroll to $85 million. This was vetted and approved by MLB prior to approval by MLB. Every [Jeter] investor and non investor has the Wolverine financial plan of slashing payroll to $85 million. Widely circulated."

First off, "Project Wolverine" is ludicrously self-important and sinister-sounding, as budget strategies go. That's the name of a secret NSA laboratory deep under the Caballo Mountains in New Mexico, not a financial schematic. Do better, Jeets. Anyhow, there's enough careful phrasing in Manfred's comments ("operating-level decisions," "'Player X' or 'Player Y'") to give him some plausible deniability. However, the idea that he didn't know about plans to engage in yet another demo job by Marlins owners strains credulity.

wiatmppgryar wiatmppgryar Says:
04/18/2018 at 03:41am
Computer chip Williams gives you profiting residential jog

Philadelphia Eagles Jerseys PHILADELPHIA -- Typically the desktop computer reveals can be described as notorious first-pitch swinger. So it is of no great surprise who Reds reliever threw your man some first-pitch breakage sphere in your 9th inning Sunday occasion by Seniors Commercial lender Meadow. Torrey Brenard Jerseys Quackenbush dreamed of Williams towards aquire, only this period Williams don't. Tommy McDonald Jerseys The guy preferably instead functioned their self towards a 3-1 count up, previously the guy killed some fastball towards right-center-field on a pinch-hit single residential jog in any 6-5 success.

Philadelphia Eagles It's the pioneer pinch-hit homer from Williams' livelihood. Phillies short purchased your partner's to begin with protect of this summer accompanied by a scoreless ninth. Timmy Jernigan Jerseys Reds catcher arrive at your partner's to begin with residential jog of this summer in your thirdly inning, tying the game play by 3. The guy was basically right behind typically the sheet for ones to begin with start of the summer for the purpose of southpaw, what individuals made way for personal training can run (two to three garnered) through your partner's two to three innings from give good results.   Typically the Reds bullpen functioned 3 scoreless innings previously Quackenbush yielded the domestic go to Williams. Terrence Brooks Jerseys EXPERIENCES WHO MATTEREDHoskins, Kingery mixture Reed: Phillies departed fielder arrive at some two-out, two-run residential go to departed particular field in your to begin with inning vs Reed handy typically the Phillies some 2-1 live. Stephen Tulloch Jerseys Newbie adhered to accompanied by a single residential go to departed in your further, your partner's to begin with Leading League residential jog, to help with making it again 3-1.

NFL Jerseys Kingery arrive at some 1-0 fastball a little bit of as few as 15 size (1. twenty-two ft .) there are various earth. Certainly no Phillies professional found arrive at some sphere decreased there are various earth as arrive at a particular as few as 9 size (0. 73 ft .) out of your airborne dirt and dust keep going September. Ervin rating, Hamilton will never: launched typically the sixth inning accompanied by a singular towards departed particular field. Then borrowed further to include their self through credit scoring standing. Stefen Wisniewski Jerseys Phillies catcher genuinely threw some explode towards further starting point -- clocked typically the put together by 86. 0 mph -- and yet Kingery obtained typically the pouch latter not to mention found certainly no probability to level your man. Sidney Jones Jerseys It again established pricy for the reason that Ervin afterward scored even on a two-out chopper apart Phillies pitcher 's hands and wrists towards associate the game play, 5-5. Alfaro really enjoyed numerous redemption latter in your inning when ever Hamilton sampled towards status because of further even on a old review. Stefen Wisniewski Jerseys Alfaro slid towards restore typically the sphere right behind typically the sheet not to mention threw some emerge towards, what individuals stored against typically the sphere for the reason that Hamilton collided with the help of your man for ones thirdly through.

crothermbeme crothermbeme Says:
04/18/2018 at 02:39am
OnCheap Soccer Jerseys Wholesale Friday, Big Deutz - Bryant parted ways with the Dallas Cowboys. Even though Dez continued to reduce Global Jerseys Wholesale production as he ages in the past few years, the eight-year veteran who cut down on the "American team" still let fans debate and enter the free market, and people are guessing that Deze's next stop. Where will it be.New Products
Deez BryantWorld Cup 2018 is very dissatisfied with the practice of the Cowboys. He has been well-trained in the off-season and is only able to play better for the next season.Bundesliga Jerseys Originally they could cut off Detz earlier, but they did not, which made Deez passive in the free market. On Tuesday, Deze told reporters that he wouldShop All Products be happy to stay in the East area of ??the League of Nations. In this case, he would have the opportunity to play against the cowboy twice a Other Teamsyear. He hopes that his old club will achieve revenge. Deez also said that the New York Giants attracted him, especially their offensive team. "The Giants'Premier League offseason lineup is relatively intact and I think they will give OBJ a suitable offer, so Beckham will definitely stay here.
In addition to hisLa Liga offense, there are also Sterling Shepard, near-fielder Irwin Ingram, and Eli Manning. Heaven! This is crazy! "These were followed by Deez and added:" If they takeLigue 1 away Sarkwan Barkley of Penn State in the draft, the offensive team is just as beautiful. "The ideal is full, but the reality is very skinny. If the Giants use BucketNFL Jerseys 2 to pick Buckley, their offensive team would be enough even if they didn't have Deez. The reason for signing him may be that the team needs red zone offensive NHL Jerseysweapons." This is why Deez didn't mention Brandon Marshall when he talked about the Giants offensive team. Last season, Marshall only played for the Giants in fiveNBA Jerseys games and then went on a free-fighting game. If the Giants really signed Dees, then Marshall had a lot. It may become a victim.
In addition to the Giants, Dez NCAA JerseysBryant has a decent interest in several teams, including Jacksonville Jaguars, Oakland Raiders and 49 San Francisco players. So what are the teams he does not Nike NFLwant to go? Green Bay Packers, Deez thinks the team "had too many stories with him." "Green Bay may not be able to deal with me." Deitz pointed out that in the 2015Nike NFL Jerseys postseason, the Cowboys and packers met in a narrow way. In the crucial moment of the fourth quarter, Deez Bryant made a new first pass by passing TonyAuthentic Jerseys Romo in the fourth gear to advance the ball to the yard 1 yard ahead of the packer.
At this time, Packer coach MikeWomen Jerseys McCarthy put forward a challenge. After the referee watched the video, he decided that the receiving ball was invalid, which made Deez very dissatisfied. If theYouth Jerseys ball is placed in the 2018 season, the penalty is definitely another result. Excluding Aaron Rogers's factors, Dez didn't like packers. For Dez Bryant, he does Shop By National Team not want to see the current situation, because he can get at least 12.5 million US dollars to stay in the cowboy, and into the free market will greatly reduce their own value. In recent years, Dez's data is not very beautiful. Coupled with age, the peak period has passed. It may be difficult for Deze's wish list to take place.

sidd yadav Says:
02/20/2018 at 02:42am
To the lot a comment for the best post pscodes.net to total game online free psn codes generator.

Says:
10/29/2010 at 11:47am
I took the liberty of validating my previous comment by snagging a few screenshots of decoded WPA and RSN IEs. See the links below, which show the WPA and RSN IEs in their entirety. The first shows a WPA IE in a beacon, which you can compare with the third, showing an RSN IE in a probe response. Then compare the second and fourth images, showing a WPA IE in an association request (note the lack of PMKID Count) and an RSN IE in an association request (note the presence of the PMKID Count, though it is set to 0, so does not contain the PMKID List field).
http://www.cwnp.com/img/tech/WPA_IE_in_beacon.png
http://www.cwnp.com/img/tech/WPA_IE_in_association_request.png
http://www.cwnp.com/img/tech/RSN_IE_in_probe_response.png
http://www.cwnp.com/img/tech/RSN_IE_in_association_request.png

Notice that the OUI is changed from 00:0F:AC to 00:50:F2 (IEEE to Wi-Fi alliance), but the coding of ciphers and authentication types remain the same. There is no preauthentication bit to set in WPA IEs and there is no PMKID count or list fields in (re)association frames.

Says:
10/29/2010 at 09:40am
Thanks Zach for the follow-up. It's probably not necessary to chime in on top of that, but he's exactly right. The preauthentication bit is always set to 0 in WPA. Also, the PMKID count and list fields are not used either. So, inasmuch as devices follow the WPA implementation doc (using the WPA IE instead of RSNIE), other FSR like PMK caching and OKC would not be supported either.
To Andy's question, the primary difference is that with preauthentication, the client must do the full 802.1X with each future AP prior to roaming. This is a fair amount of additional overhead. In OKC (OPMK Caching) and CCKM, the current AP (or WLC) passes the keying material to other APs (or the WDS) and the client and future APs use that same source keying material without performing a full 802.1X authentication. Make sense? Good question.

Andrew Pennington Says:
10/27/2010 at 16:26pm
How does preathentication differ from OPMK Caching and CCKM?
Thanks,
Andy

Zahari Georgiev Says:
10/26/2010 at 14:54pm
Marcus,
I hope you don’t mind me answering Andrew’s question for you.
Andrew,
You are correct, WPA does not support pre-authentication. WPA beacons don’t have RSN field (like you mentioned) and therefore cannot advertise pre-authentication capability.
Thanks
Zach

Says:
10/22/2010 at 17:05pm
Hi Marcus,
Great write-up. I've never thought there was mis-understanding out there around this feature, but I guess there obviously is.
Also, wouldn't pre-authentication only be valid for an 802.11i (WPA2) RSN network since the 802.11-2007 standard specifically states the pre-authentication capability is advertised in the RSN IE? This would mean that Wi-Fi Alliance pre-standard WPA would not be able to use this feature since it uses the WPA IE, not the RSN IE.
Thanks,
Andrew
@revolutionwifi

<< prev - comments page 1 of 1 - next >>

Leave a Reply

Please login or sign-up to add your comment.
Success Stories

I literally just came out of the testing centre having taken the CWDP exam. The certification process opened my mind to different techniques and solutions. This knowledge can only broaden your perspective. Great job, CWNP, you have a great thing going on here.

-Darren
Read More

Working through the CWNP coursework and certifications helped not only to deepen my technical knowledge and understanding, but also it boosted my confidence. The hard work it took to earn my CWNE has been rewarding in so many ways.

-Ben
Read More

I want to commend you and all at CWNP for having a great organization. You really 'raise the bar' on knowing Wi-Fi well. I have learned a ton of information that is helping my job experience and personal career goals, because of my CWAP/CWDP/CWSP studies. Kudos to all at CWNP.

-Glenn
Read More