White Papers

White PapersCWNP Enterprise Wi-Fi White Papers

Free PDF white papers about difficult to understand topics to help you learn more about how enterprise Wi-Fi networks function. Accessing these white papers is free, but requires a CWNP Account.


802.11 Alternate PHYs
Today, we live in the IoT (Internet-of-things) world where everything needs to be connected in a fast, reliable and secure manner. Different devices and applications have different requirements of the network in terms of data rates, range, and power. For example, while some devices require connectivity with very high throughput for a short range (less than 10m), other devices might require low throughput over a long range. The common 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi protocols (802.11a/b/g/n/ac) do not always provide the optimum connectivity method for these requirements. For this reason, several new 802.11 standards have been developed in the last several years to provide better connectivity solutions catering to these unique requirements. In this paper, we will address the traditional 802.11 2.4/5GHz standards. Then, we will discuss briefly three newer Wi-Fi amendments which are 802.11ad, 802.11af and 802.11ah and explain how they can provide better solutions to meet the new requirements.
802.11s Mesh Networking
802.11s is an amendment to the 802.11 standard that defines mesh networking. This whitepaper by Jerome Henry (CWNE, CCIE-Wireless) and Marcus Burton explores the new features and protocol enhancements that enable mesh networking.
The Triple Blendy
This white paper will introduce the hardware, software, and techniques that make it possible to capture frames on multiple channels simultaneously, while the analyzer merges all frames into a single capture display window and performs real-time expert analysis.
Protection Ripple in 802.11 WLANs
A whitepaper detailing common problems with using protection mechanisms such as RTS/CTS and CTS-to-Self.
Robust Security Network (RSN) Fast BSS Transition (FT)
This white paper describes specific features found in the 802.11 standard and ratified amendments that are designed to aid clients in fast roaming while maintaining a secure operating environment.
802.11i Authentication and Key Management (AKM)
This whitepaper makes the process of 802.11i authentication and key management easier to understand, as it can play an important role for wireless security and analysis professionals.  This is the now famous "chicken and egg" white paper.
802.11 Arbitration
802.11 arbitration is the combination of processes and mechanisms used by stations to access the shared wireless medium.  Since the wireless medium is half-duplex - shared by everyone in a given area on the same frequency - only one station can usually transmit at a time without adverse effects. 802.11 arbitration is a foundation upon which functional Wi-Fi is built, so understanding these details can lend considerable credibility to consultants and administrators.
A Year of Wi-Fi 2018
"Wi-Fi has become king in the indoor world. Businesses and homes are relying on Wi-Fi more than ever to glue the array of technologies they are using in their digital transformation. Businesses are also realizing that Wi-Fi is the central platform to engage with customers and empower employees.

In the past few years, carrier Wi-Fi has become a natural part of both network and business strategies both for mobile network operators (MNOs) and wireline or converged operators such as cable providers. For cable operators, especially in the US and western Europe, Wi-Fi has taken center stage in wireless/mobility strategies with the proliferation of managed home-spots and public hotspots There are those that claim that with the emergence of 5G, Wi-Fi days are numbered. We strongly disagree and make the case that Wi-Fi will continue to dominate the indoor technology environment and leverage its formidable footprint and ecosystem. We believe it is uses cases that dictate technology use not the way around.

Wi-Fi is also not resting on its laurels as showcased by the introduction of the latest Wi-Fi 6 which promises to deliver greater spectrum efficiency and is optimized to serve high density environment and IoT. Wi-Fi is evolving quickly and will be part of the 5G vision."

- The Maravedis Team
The Role of Protocol Analysis in Cybersecurity - Closing the Gap on Undetected Data Breaches
Written By: James Garringer
Original Publish Date: December 2018

"200 Days! [That's the] average number of days that pass before an organization realizes it has been breached." - James Garringer

Abstract:
Organizations of all sizes are targets for a cyberattack. Undetected data breaches result in the catastrophic loss of personally identifiable information (PII) causing considerable financial and reputation harm to organizations, while also imposing a risk of identity fraud to consumers. The purpose of this study was to consider the impact that undetected data breaches have on organizations with an additional focus on shortening the gap between the time of data breach and the time of detection through manual protocol analysis and intrusion detection system (IDS) solutions. This research reviewed the available literature detailing the effects of undetected data breaches on organizations as well as the advanced exploitation of protocols and anomaly detection through manual protocol analysis and IDS.

Manual protocol analysis provides situational anomaly detection when compared to baseline network traffic, but implies privacy concerns and does not allow timely detection of most cyberattacks. Automated IDS stream-based flows allow quicker detection of cyberattacks. Network flow-based IDS misses hidden attacks due to lack of a data payload requiring manual analysis instead, while host-based IDS adversely affects the performance of the host computer, but successfully identifies anomalies based on known signatures. This study recommended a complementary defense-in-depth solution which employs manual protocol analysis and both host-based and network-based IDS solutions as a viable strategy for reducing the time between data breach and time of detection. This study additionally recommended that security operation center personnel and IT departments should receive protocol analysis training to support manual detection against a known network traffic baseline.
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