White Papers

White PapersCWNP Enterprise Wi-Fi White Papers

Free PDF white papers about difficult to understand topics to help you learn more about how enterprise Wi-Fi networks function. Accessing these white papers is free, but requires a CWNP Account.


802.11 Alternate PHYs
Today, we live in the IoT (Internet-of-things) world where everything needs to be connected in a fast, reliable and secure manner. Different devices and applications have different requirements of the network in terms of data rates, range, and power. For example, while some devices require connectivity with very high throughput for a short range (less than 10m), other devices might require low throughput over a long range. The common 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi protocols (802.11a/b/g/n/ac) do not always provide the optimum connectivity method for these requirements. For this reason, several new 802.11 standards have been developed in the last several years to provide better connectivity solutions catering to these unique requirements. In this paper, we will address the traditional 802.11 2.4/5GHz standards. Then, we will discuss briefly three newer Wi-Fi amendments which are 802.11ad, 802.11af and 802.11ah and explain how they can provide better solutions to meet the new requirements.
802.11s Mesh Networking
802.11s is an amendment to the 802.11 standard that defines mesh networking. This whitepaper by Jerome Henry (CWNE, CCIE-Wireless) and Marcus Burton explores the new features and protocol enhancements that enable mesh networking.
The Triple Blendy
This white paper will introduce the hardware, software, and techniques that make it possible to capture frames on multiple channels simultaneously, while the analyzer merges all frames into a single capture display window and performs real-time expert analysis.
Protection Ripple in 802.11 WLANs
A whitepaper detailing common problems with using protection mechanisms such as RTS/CTS and CTS-to-Self.
Robust Security Network (RSN) Fast BSS Transition (FT)
This white paper describes specific features found in the 802.11 standard and ratified amendments that are designed to aid clients in fast roaming while maintaining a secure operating environment.
802.11i Authentication and Key Management (AKM)
This whitepaper makes the process of 802.11i authentication and key management easier to understand, as it can play an important role for wireless security and analysis professionals.  This is the now famous "chicken and egg" white paper.
802.11 Arbitration
802.11 arbitration is the combination of processes and mechanisms used by stations to access the shared wireless medium.  Since the wireless medium is half-duplex - shared by everyone in a given area on the same frequency - only one station can usually transmit at a time without adverse effects. 802.11 arbitration is a foundation upon which functional Wi-Fi is built, so understanding these details can lend considerable credibility to consultants and administrators.
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