The Cisco Premium

The Cisco Premium

By CWNP On 04/27/2010 - 31 Comments

In the vendor scramble towards low-priced commoditized 802.11n hardware, one vendor is drawing a line in the sand and bucking the trend. Perhaps the only vendor that could stand resolute with this decision, Cisco is foregoing the sprint to status quo (low priced 2x2) by introducing the antithesis of commodity, something that fits by itself in a category called “premium.”

Since the Cognio acquisition back in 2007, Cisco stands as the only vendor with the unique position and opportunity to seamlessly embed their own true spectrum analysis chipset into the Wi-Fi chipset. And capitalizing on this unique position is exactly what they’ve done by integrating the spectrum analysis hardware from Cognio into the Marvell radio. This integrated feature set is available in their new 3500-series APs, which are beautiful to behold. The 3501i and 3502i (that “i” is for integrated antennas) look similar to the 1142s, with some subtle updates. The 3501e and 3502e (betcha can’t guess what the “e” is for) also took their styling cues from the 1142, again with some subtle updates and well-designed, recessed antenna connectors on top. In addition to the hundreds of thousands of added logic gates in the Wi-Fi radio, I should also mention that Cisco took advantage of this radio update to improve other features as well, such as RRM and ClientLink.

Cisco 3500 Series APs

As for compatibility with other components of the CUWN, all WLCs are supported (even the lowly 2106) with new v7 firmware. The WCS also got a bump to v7, and has several new enhancements. You’ll also notice that Cisco Spectrum Expert got a major code revision (up to 4.x) to support remote sensor connectivity. More on that later. After releasing the 1142 AP a while back, Cisco has been an advocate of marrying 802.11n with 802.3af, a trend they’re continuing with the 3500 APs. Yes, this means the Marvell chipset is still 2x3, a fact that doesn’t surprise me. Another transmitter doesn’t give you much in this case, other than a higher power budget. I should also note that they updated their 1252 AP to a 1260-series AP, which is also 802.3af compatible.

While other vendors have previously claimed spectrum-level visibility in their APs, they suffer from the unfortunate effect of ill-advised marketing. What is billed by some as “spectrum analysis” is nothing more than 802.11 Wi-Fi utilization analysis, or very, very minimal spectrum data. A good feature, but it’s not true, useful spectrum analysis. As a side note, this does not include Aruba, who I believe will have legitimate, though limited, spectrum analysis later this year.

As a slight diversion, I have a few comments about Aruba’s announcement. One of Aruba’s key messages is that they will offer spectrum analysis with existing hardware…no need to buy new hardware. Seriously, that’s great! However, existing hardware always has a ceiling on its limitations. With improvements in technology, new hardware for new features is always inevitable. Aruba is eeking out every bit of Layer 1 information from their existing Wi-Fi chipset in order to pitch integrated spectrum analysis with existing hardware. However, they’ll quickly reach the ceiling on the hardware’s capabilities. Cisco’s spectrum analysis hardware is considerably superior to Atheros’ current hardware because Atheros designed a Wi-Fi chipset, whereas Cisco/Cognio designed a spectrum analysis chipset. Different purpose, different capabilities. Further, at some point, you have to replace hardware in pursuit of a higher ceiling. The fact that Cisco has integrated Cognio into an AP is a major step in the right direction. This is important stuff, and they’re leading the pack in this category by a mile.

Obviously, Aruba knew about Cisco’s developments and pending press at Interop, so their preemptive release was intended to take the wind out of Cisco’s sails. It’s a classic red herring. Poor form, Aruba. I realize this is fundamental aggressive and strategic business marketing (everyone does it), but I’m not a big fan of marketing vaporware. Market what you have when you have it—or at least when you can provide beta releases for third-party validation. No less, I’m talking about Aruba in my review of Cisco, so I guess their marketing worked. DOH!
And now, we’re onto the good stuff. By now, we all know that the Cognio chipset has been the de facto standard in mobile (WLAN, anyway) spectrum analysis now for the past many years. This leaves us with little need to verify the quality of Cisco’s RF visibility. It’s good. I’ve seen it with my own eyes, touched the APs with my own hands, and put the “dirty air” through its paces. Speaking of dirty air, that is the whole point. In unlicensed frequencies, the RF spectrum is dirty (filled with myriad RF sources), which leads us to Cisco’s branding. CleanAir™ is the trademarked term for their integrated spectrum analysis technology. With all the new L1 and L2 horsepower provided by 802.11n, we’re in need of some better RF headlights to optimize the network. Clean air is exactly what we need.

When I first heard about CleanAir, I had to stop and first ask about price. In the absence of a low-cost AP solution to compete with the $500 APs—as well as new architectures—from other vendors, Cisco is releasing a more expensive AP? Further, it is common—and public—knowledge that Cisco gear comes with a price premium. Or does it? I have to admit that Cisco really surprised me with their prices. Given the value of integrated spectrum analysis, I don’t see a price premium with their new APs. Considering that Meru’s 320i APs were released a few months ago at ~$1499 because of internal antennas, CleanAir AP pricing between $1095 and $1495 is looking pretty darn good. And as John Chamber’s said, though there may be a price premium, true value can only be measured as a comparison of “your total cost of ownership v. your productivity.” If innovative features like CleanAir™ and ClientLink™ allow employees to be more productive and profitable, and your WLAN to be more resilient and agile in the face of interference, then the tradeoff of slightly higher cost is moot. Integrated spectrum analysis without a big price premium...very nice!

Cisco’s employees are usually well educated, so I think the value of embedded spectrum analysis will be made evident fairly quickly. Let me help demonstrate their value claim with a quick question. What do WMM, airtime fairness, band steering, RRM, and inter-AP roaming have in common? Answer: they are all L2 functions that are designed to optimize multi-service WLANs. If you rely on your wireless network for mission-critical client access, these features are important, right? So, just as a house requires a solid foundation, all L2 WLAN features—as well as all functions at layers 3-7—must be built on a solid RF foundation at L1. Instability in the RF foundation leads to instability in higher layer functions. In other words, if you want your network to support robust applications reliably, layer 1 must be reliable. MIMO helped us out a lot here, but the RF medium is still inherently unpredictable, and it always will be. If you can’t predict or control it, the next best thing is to monitor it, to know what is going on at the RF level, and to respond accordingly. RF visibility is what CleanAir offers, and IMHO this is very, very good.

Analysts have predicted that end-user network access will move increasingly towards wireless, and I agree wholeheartedly. This continuing shift demands that we improve our use and understanding of the RF medium. Embedded spectrum analysis is a great place to start. CleanAir provides us with L1 monitoring, but it doesn’t stop at monitoring. If you remember the basic history of wireless intrusion detection, you might recall that everything started as a WIDS—wireless intrusion detection—which offers monitoring and reporting, but not preventative response. As WIDS matured, engineers took advantage of the 802.11 protocol, and the WIDS evolved into a responsive solution, a WIPS (wireless intrusion prevention). Now WIPS provide monitoring and reporting, as well as automated response (prevention). Reaction is huge. Cisco learned from WIDS/WIPS history and bypassed the lesson at the RF level, taking us straight to RF monitoring, reporting, and automated response.

So, if you’re already familiar with the Cisco Unified Wireless Network (who isn’t these days?), you know that Cisco APs support different “modes.” These include Local, Monitor, H-REAP, etc., and allow your AP to support specific functions based on the use case. With the introduction of CleanAir, a new mode, called SE-Connect, has been added.

SE-Connect Mode

When you configure an AP for SE-Connect mode, the AP reboots and becomes a remote spectrum analysis sensor for use with Cisco Spectrum Expert software (remember the 4.x update). This functionality is just plain slick (have I hidden the fact that I’m drooling?). In WCS, you can launch Spectrum Expert by clicking on the SE icon in the Monitor > AP list.

Launch Remote Spectrum Expert Sensor

When you run Cisco Spectrum Expert with a remote sensor, it supports all the same functions as if you had a PCMCIA Spectrum Expert card connected to your laptop. For those users who don’t run a WCS, the same functionality—with a different launch method—is supported with CleanAir capable APs and a WLC. The graphic below shows an analog cordless phone on the lower end of the 2.4 GHz band. Of course, I captured this with an SE-Connect CleanAir sensor. Way Cool!

Analog Cordless Phone

In addition to the new SE-Connect mode, CleanAir also introduces several enhancements to the Monitor mode. This is where the primary, everyday usefulness of CleanAir exists. The CleanAir spectrum analysis functionality sits on the front end of all signal processing when a CleanAir AP is in Monitor mode. All non-Wi-Fi transmissions are collected and processed by the CleanAir engine. On the other hand, if the radio detects a Wi-Fi transmission (modulated 802.11 signals), signal reception is passed from the spectrum analysis module to the Wi-Fi module for processing. This selection/filtering process allows for detection and classification of signal sources so that the appropriate chip logic can be used to process transmissions. This functionality enables simultaneous support of spectrum analysis (L1 security and performance) and Wi-Fi frame processing (L1 and L2 security and performance), which is a great use of the integration. There’s one hiccup with this method that I should note. Specifically, some RF DoS attacks (a spectrum analysis issue) can be performed with Wi-Fi devices using spread spectrum modulation techniques. Nuts about Nets’ AirHorn and the Queensland DoS attack with Intersil’s Prism NIC are two examples of this type of attack. These modulated Wi-Fi signals would be passed to the Wi-Fi chip module for processing, thus they may not get proper treatment as RF DoS attacks. On the Wi-Fi side, this occurrence should be classified as a security and performance threat if it persistently triggers the CCA ED threshold or cranks up the noise floor beyond useful levels. This issue is a nitpick in the grand scheme of things, especially considering that the spectrum analysis module still picked up my AirHorn DoS attack as an invalid WLAN channel (see graphic). This trigger would allow administrators to investigate further, possibly by launching SE-Connect mode and performing manual analysis.

Interferers WLAN Invalid Channel

This type of scenario highlights an important security aspect addressed by CleanAir. For any standard Wi-Fi radio to properly receive Wi-Fi transmissions, the receiving radio must be configured to receive on a specific frequency. However, with special modifications, rogue Wi-Fi devices could be configured to transmit on invalid Wi-Fi channels where Wi-Fi radios won’t normally listen. A traditional Wi-Fi only WIPS without spectrum analysis capabilities would miss these transmissions if the receive radio is not centered on the same frequency as the transmitter, thus highlighting the fact that with spectrum analysis functionality (which processes all RF energy within the monitored frequency range), CleanAir addresses security issues as well as performance issues.

As I think about CleanAir’s usefulness for network administrators, I have to come back to some of Cisco’s developments in WCS. Specifically, the Home (that’s the little house on the top left) menu adds a CleanAir tab that provides a useful launch point and data collection area. As you can see from the screenshot, this screen provides a list of Interferers, as well as Air Quality metrics over time. This Air Quality (AQ) metric is an interesting concept and reflects a granular look at the RF medium. I’ll leave it to Cisco to explain this.

CleanAir Tab

“Today, most standard Wi‐Fi chips evaluate the spectrum by tracking all of the packets/energy that can be demodulated on receive—and all of the packets/energy that it is transmitting. Any energy that remains in the spectrum that cannot be demodulated or accounted for by RX/TX activity is lumped into a category called noise. In reality a lot of the 'noise' is actually remnants from collisions, or Wi‐Fi packets that fall below the receive threshold for reliable demodulation.

“With CleanAir, we take a different approach. We classify all of the energy within the spectrum that is definitely NOT Wi‐Fi and account for it. We can also see and understand energy that is 802.11 modulated and classify energy that is coming from Co‐channel and Adjacent channel sources. For each classified device, we calculate a severity index, a positive integer between 0 and 100—with 100 being the most severe. Interference severity is then subtracted from the AQ scale (starting at 100—good) to generate the actual AQ for a channel/radio, AP, Floor, Building or campus.” (From CleanAir Beta guide)

The resolution of the Cognio chipset provides some unique capabilities for Cisco here. Specifically, the quality of the Cognio chipset allows Cisco to proactively respond to interferers that can be positively identified. In other words, there’s a lot of RF traffic in the unlicensed frequency space (especially 2.4 GHz), and it can be difficult to positively classify all of it. So, if CleanAir is to provide reliable and actionable data (and, yes, it does), there is a requirement to ensure positive classification of RF sources before a system response is made. This approach reflects a need for high accuracy, and is the best thing for customers. They (Cisco) clearly have confidence in the device ID algorithms that they’ve developed. This confidence allows the CleanAir intelligence to integrate with and inform other features, such as RRM. Case in point, they’ve added options for RRM’s Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) functionality, such as Event Driven RRM—allow spectrum-level events to inform RRM decisions—and Avoidance of Persistent RF Interferers. RRM is just one of the many automated uses of spectrum-level visibility within an AP.

Back to my point about administrator usefulness, when you combine CleanAir functionality with a Mobility Services Engine (MSE) and WCS—Cisco recommends this for best use of the features—you get some pretty slick location-based RF information. You may have noticed from the top right corner of the previous screenshot (the CleanAir tab in WCS Home) that Cisco identifies interferers by assigning them to a location with a map link. They’re using much of the same location technology used with tracking Wi-Fi tags or client devices (e.g.. Fingerprinting and Triangulation). In any case, this location functionality allows for easier isolation of an interferer’s location, the interferer’s impact on other network devices, and correlation of interference across the network.

Interferer Map

On the floor plan, you see the interferer’s location (accuracy depends on a number of factors) as well as the interferer’s impact with a big red circle. The impact is pretty obvious. As Jim Florwick (Cisco TME) says, “Red is bad.” That’s easy, even for me. :D If you single click the interferer’s location on the map, you get some basic information, such as the type of interferer, affected channels (my wife gets tired of me testing Wi-Fi interference sources near her Wi-Fi network, which is on channel 1), duty cycle, and a severity index (i.e. how bad is the problem). If you double click on the interferer from the map view, you get more information. This is great for inexperienced RF folks, because it spells out the impact in clear language. For example, it provides an “Action” explanation that details the typical impact of this type of device.

This is already an abnormally long review, but I have one more point, and it relates to Wi-Fi utilization. With a typical protocol analyzer, you can analyze Wi-Fi utilization in terms of Wi-Fi traffic (L2). Wi-Fi utilization is great, and if you know how to analyze the data, it usually gives you a pretty clear sense of the network’s performance. However, this type of analysis can’t account for utilization of the RF spectrum by non Wi-Fi devices, which may account for a significant portion of your network’s problems. I think mobile products will continue to be useful for this type of work, but integrating spectrum analysis in the AP gets us several steps closer to a holistic view of our network’s health at the AP. When it comes to troubleshooting, making a network run smoothly is always about finding and fixing the source of the problem. We often start with symptoms and diagnose from there. Spectrum visibility is one of the key ingredients to this type of wireless insight.

I’m making a conscious effort to stop myself here and shut up. I believe that integrated spectrum analysis is a trend that will be embraced by other vendors in the near-ish future. At present, Cisco has a significant head start with the integration of one of the best spectrum analysis chipsets in their APs. Given the unique offering, I would have expected a big price premium, but they’re turning the “Cisco Premium” upside down with premium features, and palatable prices. Spectrum-level enhancements are incredibly important, and from my perspective, Cisco is doing all the right things with CleanAir by making it accessible and relevant to network administrators. This is a noteworthy advancement for the industry…one that I expect to make a lot of noise (and avoid some noise at the same time). I’m thoroughly impressed!
You can also download this review as a PDF:

Tagged with: Cisco, CleanAir, Spectrum Expert, spectrum analysis, Cognio, Access Point, 3500, 1260

31 Responses to The Cisco Premium

Subscribe by Email
Mike Flower Says:
08/01/2018 at 16:58pm,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Hp Technical Support,
Hp Laptop Support ,
Hp Desktop Support ,
HP Scanner Support ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Norton 360 Antivirus Support ,
Norton Internet Security support ,
Norton Technical Support , ,
Norton Antivirus Customer Support,

Mike Flower Says:
08/01/2018 at 16:44pm
toshiba printer support
toshiba printer support number
toshiba printer support phone number
toshiba printer support canada
toshiba printer support drivers
toshiba business printer support
toshiba printer support contact number
toshiba printer support contact
toshiba printer customer support
toshiba printer chat support
toshiba printer customer support number
toshiba printer customer support phone number
toshiba multifunction printer support
toshiba printer technical support number
toshiba printer tech support phone number
toshiba printer online support
toshiba printer tech support
toshiba printer technical support
toshiba printer support usa
toshiba support
toshiba support drivers
toshiba support printer
toshiba support assistant
toshiba support contact
toshiba support hard drive
toshiba support drivers usa
toshiba support number
toshiba support and drivers
toshiba support business
toshiba support chat
Toshiba Technical Support
Toshiba Tech Support

epson support
epson support number
epson support email
epson support number uk
epson support driver
epson support for mac
epson support scanners
epson support printer
epson support and drivers
epson help and support
epson support chat
epson support contact
epson support contact number
epson support call center
epson printer support
epson printer support phone number
epson printer support contact number
epson printer support center
epson printer support mac
epson printer support chat
epson printer support hotline
epson printer support helpline
epson printer driver help
epson printer support numbers
epson printer support online
espon technical support
espon technical support number
espon tech support
espon technical support helpline number
espon coustomer support
espon coustomer support number
espon coustomer care
espon coustomer care number
espon toll free number

brother printer support
brother printer support number uk
brother printer support phone
brother printer support drivers
brother printer support mac
brother printer support coustomer service
brother printer support contact
brother printer support phone number
brother printers service and support
brother printer support chat
brother printer support contact number
brother support
brother support drivers
brother support solutions center
brother support chat
brother support printer
brother support phone
brother support number uk
brother support number
brother support phone number
brother technical support
brother tech support
brother technical support number
brother tech support number
brother coustomer support
brother coustomer care
brother coustomer support number
brother coustomer number
brother toll free number

dell support
dell support chat
dell support drivers
dell support phone number
dell support contact
dell support number
dell printer support
dell printer support phone number
dell printer support chat
dell printer support contact
dell printer support drivers
dell printer support number uk
dell printer support phone
dell printer support uk
dell printer support phone number uk
dell printer support number
dell bukiness printer support
dell printer support contact number
dell printer coustomer support
dell printer coustomer support phone number
dell printer coustomer support number
dell laser printer coustomer support
dell support for printer
phone number for dell printer support
dell printer help support
dell laser printer support
dell laser printer support phone number
dell laser printer tech support
dell laser printer technical support
dell printer support number uk
dell printer tech support number
dell printer technical support number
dell printer support telephone number
dell printer tech support phone number
dell printer technical support phone number
dell printer tech support
dell printer technical support
dell wireless printer support
dell customer support number
dell coustomer support
dell coustomer care number

samsung printer support
samsung printer support phone number
samsung printer support drivers
samsung printer support phone
samsung printer support live chat
samsung printer support and drivers
samsung bukiness printer support
samsung printer support chat
samsung printer support contact number
samsung printer coustomer support
samsung printer coustomer support number
samsung printer support for mac
samsung printer support toll free number
samsung support for printer
samsung printer support helpline
samsung printer support hotline
samsung printer help support
samsung laser printer support
samsung color laser printer support
samsung laser printer coustomer support
samsung laser printer technical support
samsung laser printer tech support
samsung printer support number
samsung printer tech support number
samsung printer technical support number
samsung printer support online
samsung printer online chat support
samsung printer technical support phone number
samsung printer tech support phone number
samsung printer tech support phone
samsung support
samsung support number
samsung support live chat
samsung support uka
samsung support chat
samsung support coustomer service
samsung support contact number
samsung support helpline
samsung support in uka
samsung coustomer support number
samsung coustomer support
samsung technical support number
samsung technical support
samsung tech support
samsung tech support number

hp support
hp support number
hp technical support
hp tech support
hp tech support number
hp technical support number
hp support phone number
hp support drivers
hp support assistant
hp support for mac
hp support toll free number
hp printer support
hp support uka
hp support contact uk
hp support chat
hp support contact phone number
hp support contact number uka
hp support coustomer care
hp support for windows 10
hp support for android
hp coustomer care
Hp coustomer support
Hp technical support
Hp toll free number
Hp support number
hp printer support
hp printer support phone number
hp printer support assistant
hp printer support for mac
hp printer support toll free number
hp printer support help
hp printer support drivers
hp printer support uk
hp printer support windows
hp printer support contact uk
hp printer support and drivers
hp printer support android
hp printer support chat
hp printer support contact phone number
hp printer support contact number uk
hp printer support for android
hp printer support for samsung
hp printer support for linux
hp printer support for windows 10
hp printer support for mac os x
hp printer support helpline number
hp laserjet printer support
hp officejet printer support
hp deskjet printer support
hp printer support uk
hp printer support uk number
hp printer technical support uk
hp printer driver support uk
hp photosmart printer support uk
hp printer tech support number uk
hp printer tech support live chat
hp printer support helpline
hp printer support mac
hp printer support online chat
hp printer support service
hp printer support uk
hp printer support uk phone number

canon support
canon support number
canon support chat
canon support scanner
canon support drivers
canon support and drivers
canon printer support
canon printer support telephone number
canon printer support chat
canon printer support phone number uk
canon printer support uk
canon printer support drivers
canon printer support phone number
canon printer coustomer support number
canon printer coustomer support phone number
canon printer coustomer support
phone number for canon printer support
telephone number for canon printer support
canon all in one printer support
canon printer support live chat
canon printer tech support number
canon printer tech support phone number
canon printer online support
canon printer all in one support
canon printer phone support
canon printer technical support phone number
canon printer tech support
canon printer telephone support
canon all in one printer technical support
canon wireless printer support
canon technical support
canon tech support
canon technical support number
canon tech support number
canon coustomer support
canon couktomer support number
canon helpline number
canon toll free number

kodak support
kodak support number
kodak support chat
kodak support scanner
kodak support drivers
kodak support and drivers
kodak printer support
kodak printer support telephone number
kodak printer support chat
kodak printer support phone number uka
kodak printer support uka
kodak printer support drivers
kodak printer support phone number
kodak printer coustomer support number
kodak printer coustomer support phone number
kodak printer coustomer support
phone number for kodak printer support
telephone number for kodak printer support
kodak all in one printer support
kodak printer support live chat
kodak printer tech support number
kodak printer tech support phone number
kodak printer online support
kodak printer all in one support
kodak printer phone support
kodak printer technical support phone number
kodak printer tech support
kodak printer telephone support
kodak all in one printer technical support
kodak wireless printer support
Kodak technical support
Kodak tech support
Kodak technical support number
Kodak tech support number
Kodak coustomer support
Kodak couktomer support number
Kodak helpline number
kodak toll free number

xerox printer support
xerox printer support telephone number
xerox printer support chat
xerox printer support phone number uk
xerox printer support uk
xerox printer support drivers
xerox printer support phone number
xerox printer coustomer support phone number
xerox printer technical support phone number
xerox printer coustomer support
xerox printer support live chat
xerox printer support number
xerox printer tech support number
xerox printer tech support phone number
xerox printer online support
xerox printer all in one support
xerox printer phone support
xerox printer tech support
xerox printer telephone support
xerox all in one printer technical support
xerox wireless printer support
xerox technical support
xerox tech support
xerox technical support number
xerox tech support number
xerox coustomer support
xerox couktomer support number
xerox helpline number
xerox toll free number
xerox support
xerox support number
xerox support phone number
xerox support chat
xerox support assistant
xerox support and drivers
xerox support contact number
xerox support number uk
xerox support number uk
xerox support online chat
xerox online support and driver
xerox online support assistant
xerox online support number
xerox tech support online
xerox printer online support

lexmark support,
lexmark support number,
lexmark support uk,
lexmark support chat,
lexmark support contact uk,
lexmark coustomer support number,
lexmark coustomer support uk,
lexmark support drivers,
lexmark support driver software,
lexmark support for windows ,
lexmark support for mac,
lexmark support uk number,
lexmark support uk phone number,
contact lexmark support uk,
lexmark technical support uk phone number,
lexmark technical support number uk,
lexmark uk tech support,
lexmark support contact number uk,
lexmark support live chat,
lexmark live support,
lexmark support number uk,
lexmark tech support number,
lexmark support phone number uk,
lexmark support contact number,
lexmark support telephone number,
lexmark support online chat,
lexmark tech support online chat,
lexmark printer online support,
lexmark support phone number,
lexmark support serial number,
lexmark technical support,
lexmark technical support uk,
lexmark technical support chat,
lexmark printer support,
lexmark printer support number,
lexmark printer support uk,
lexmark printer support number uk,
lexmark printer support usa,
lexmark printer support live chat,
lexmark printer support contact number,
lexmark printer support chat,
lexmark printer driver support,
support for lexmark printer,
lexmark printer support uk number,
lexmark laser printer support,
lexmark printer tech support number,
lexmark printer online support,
lexmark printer support phone number,
lexmark printer phone support,
lexmark printer tech support,
lexmark printer support windows,

Maitri Shah Says:
07/30/2018 at 06:42am
free gift card codes generator

chu pa Says:
07/02/2018 at 22:33pm
good post. The navigation information is very specific and useful. thank you
vex 3

xcv xcv Says:
06/21/2018 at 04:31am

Nike pieces Michael Kors Outlet Store brings christian louboutin heels together which red bottom shoes for women has adidas originals manny pacquiao nike clearance correct adidas outlet suitable immediately zero

Resumes perfectly being the moncler sale town center 5K magazine free nike outlet store up.Above 6,500 humans by moncler women way of nike factory outlet throughout adidas store the region and adidas stan smith additionally scene professional your adidas originals 2016 resumes cheap jordans wellbeing town center 5k Michael Kors Store right this nike clearance store moment nike factory outlet a altruistic nike roshe sport incident cheap beats by dr dre which brings a discount nike shoes mixture of nike clearance Olympians, air max Top-notch nike sale and also of competitively priced professional joggers in order nike shox clearance to nike outlet store really Providence, Combined with leisure barefoot runner's, Ramblers, Motorized nike shox clearance wheel cheap nike shoes chair nike shoes on sale racers moncler men and kids. beats headphones on sale Lot to the cheap nike basketball shoes us Men's cheap nike basketball shoes additionally moncler outlet USA nike store ladies 5k cheap nike air max nationwide titles, adidas superstar The resumes nike roshe future cheap nikes health and well-being adidas yeezy the downtown area nike factory store 5k nike shoes on sale shown nike sale contests and motivational times along with cheap nike running shoes people spanning various ages and qualifications and bred cheap nike shoes installments charitable nike roshe run groups during the nike sale course of southern discount nike shoes region progressive nike shoes on sale the united nike sale kingdom. I thought he nike clearance did this the air max 27th year adidas stan smith within the annual sporting Michael Kors Outlet Online meeting.All around 4,000 consumers documented nike roshe run for the actual 5k cheap nike shoes ethnic background, cheap nikes For instance five 2016 cheap nikes Olympic nike roshe activity runners up.

Motorola Moto G4 cheap under armour coupled nike roshe with nike roshe comparisonXiaomi beats by dre on sale Mi put nike air max together nike air max as under armour outlet opposed to. Straight talk check out the Michael Kors Factory Outlet Online universe S7 ridge nike sale comparisonCoolpad see 5 retro jordans or. nike clearance Xiaomi Redmi tone 4 against. Phil almond the activity under armour sale of golf swing bemoans beats headphones cheap the disposition of cheap nike air max recent club griddles cheap beats headphones to create discount nike shoes life with cheap nike running shoes the deception cheap jordans online that nike roshe run tend to nike roshe run be up-right than nike outlet previously, Jotting that in history exceptional Michael Kors Bags Outlet pros, Include things like christian louboutin sale tom Hogan, Michael Kors Online Widely practiced golf nike clearance store iron beats earbuds who nike factory store have nike store noticeably cheap nike shoes accent dependes. Properly discount nike shoes positioned moncler coats dependes assist in Michael Kors Outlet the members cheap nike air max while using problematic shifts keep remover and retro jordans for sale even nike roshe run cutting jordans on sale of your current golfing party nike clearance store most, The air max most prevalent mishit coming from nike shox clearance all greater handicappers. Fortunately SCOR adidas outlet the nike clearance store activity nike factory outlet of cheap nike running shoes golf swing nike air max believes red bottom heels that present nike outlet day vertical base christian louboutin outlet supports red bottom shoes for men mediocre action repair,

We beats by dre sale are nike factory store able beats solo to air max learn christian louboutin shoes so much from nike outlet store Olivia Pope. louboutin sale Question we terribly lack lots of living nike shoes on sale area to jordans for sale assert regardless if this woman truly new jordans finish discount nike shoes off and cheap nike basketball shoes merely sell nike outlet online caused by new york most adidas store of the air max time, We beats by dre studio will moncler jacket focus on under armour shoes what we can study beats headphones on nike store this lady way, Before Michael Kors Online Outlet the"Scandal" Season 3 nike clearance store climax, And that airs upabout April 18. beats by dre cheap You should get some cheap nike air max harmonize with, nike clearance Get nike clearance store busy be a nike outlet gladiator,

Shot to nike shoes on sale popularity yr after to nike outlet store use nike clearance a jordan 13 good nike air max deal nike shox clearance of tennis cheap nike running shoes game, christian louboutin sneakers Observe plenty of beats earphones in daytime beats by dre wireless in nike outlet online addition visit Michael Kors Factory Outlet around the world to try adidas yeezy out events, Naumann stated. Good deal nike shoes on sale of function paid. I simply nike store returned and wished to payout nike air max a situation title. Lakers gm nike outlet online Mitch Michael Kors Handbags Outlet Kupchak been required to consult Vitti. In order do nike outlet online you know Kobe Bryant correct nike outlet suitable immediately moving about a standing cheap nike air max and nike factory store walking treadmill machine cheap nike running shoes located nike factory outlet found nike factory outlet available towards 75 red sole shoes amount having nike factory store to do moncler jackets with nike sale this particular obesity cheap nikes while cheap nike basketball shoes he rehabs operatively serviced adidas superstar right calf cheap nike basketball shoes msucles. nike outlet store Vitti it nike outlet follows nike outlet online that nike outlet delivered cheap nike air max with regard regarding his or cheap nike shoes do the job cheap nike shoes so thumbed suggests of session Michael Kors Outlet Online Store e-e reserve.

To diplomats since nike roshe run job arbitrators, One particular expectations happen beats by dre to be have been aquainted with nike store even cheap jordan shoes though countries around cheap nike running shoes the world pass most effective protocols, Despite that discount nike shoes toil jordan 11 physical assault persists. Near Colombia, 105 beats by dr dre jobs activists they obtained jordans for cheap been killed, And also over 1300 loss of dangers got nike shox clearance been cheap nikes stated cheap nike basketball shoes from a fantastic hard cheap beats work plan nike air max of action cheap beats by dre has cheap jordans for sale gone directly under armour store results available 3 cheap nikes a red bottom shoes long time nike store ago. Rich Trumka on nike outlet online the AFL nike outlet store CIO nike roshe claimed so as nike factory store returning to be nike shox clearance our lawmakers,

nike factory outlet

Sneha Gupta Says:
06/14/2018 at 04:15am
I extremely like your magnificent post. I wanted to peruse such sort of article. what's more, the first occasion when I visit our site? what's more, I glad to be here, a debt of gratitude is in order for sharing this astonishing post.

Call Girls in Delhi
Delhi Escorts

Acid Eye Says:
05/31/2018 at 06:02am
"This information is very useful. thank you for sharing. and I will also share information about health through the website This blog is a great source of information which is very useful for me. Buy 20000mah power bank Online

Lucy Gray Says:
05/18/2018 at 07:36am
The software offers a friendly dashboard and makes it very easy to get started for the user. Sage Customer Support Phone Number +1888-336-0774 It comprises very simple installation steps. Despite of the Sage Technical Support Number software according strong features and is equipped with user friendly interface there are some unfriendly circumstances that may result technical or functional errors with the software.

anjilo smith Says:
05/18/2018 at 07:36am
Sage 50 Customer Support Number +1-888-307-3506
What you have to get it… This bookkeeping bundle can make required levels of security for representatives in an association. Clients can to make some recovery of the earlier year records through this product. Furthermore, clients have all that it takes, Sage Customer Support Number,Sage Customer Support Phone Number to roll out some required improvements to an earlier bookkeeping season in any current bookkeeping stage. It is, thusly, " Sage 50" is helpful in meeting our bookkeeping prerequisites in our Sage 50 is outstanding bookkeeping programming that is outlined with simple usable highlights that aides in quickening development of the independent companies. The product can even be adaptable to complete the enormous business bookkeeping. It involves standard bookkeeping.

Lucy Gray Says:
05/18/2018 at 07:34am
Quicken Customer Support Phone Number comes to tracking your personal finances in a secure way, Quicken software is the most convincing answer to your personal financial management. Your precise activity in terms of expenditure and income can be recorded for the time period that you desire. In order to avoid any Quicken Tech Support Phone Number issues, your reports, and financial data is encrypted and securely transmitted between geographic locations.

anjilo smith Says:
05/18/2018 at 07:34am
Quicken Support Phone Number +1-888-307-3506
This enables you to deal with your own and saving money data. Animate Program is mostly utilized by the home client. Entrepreneurs additionally utilize Quicken now and then. Quicken Customer Service Phone Number,Quicken Deluxe Support Number In Quicken you can track your business points of interest too. Entrepreneurs can make solicitations in Quicken. They can likewise track their client data.

Lucy Gray Says:
05/18/2018 at 07:31am
Quickbooks Customer Support Phone Number+1888-336-0774 are a progress and profoundly suggested bookkeeping programming utilized for running independent venture and organization. But numerous times you can look more issue while utilizing it. We Quickbooks Technical Support Phone Number offer remarkable answer for your inconveniences.
Visit here:

anjilo smith Says:
05/18/2018 at 07:29am
QuickBooks Support Number +1-888-307-3506
Support is vital for amplifying ROI. Programming projects, for example, Quickbooks Customer Support Phone Number,Quickbooks Customer Service Number QuickBooks cost a considerable measure and are invested with heap functionalities. In such a case, clients require help from specialized specialists who are familiar with the product.

Sopiya Smith Says:
05/18/2018 at 02:58am
Overseas journey can be complex in unhealthy scenario and when the journey takes lengthy to complete. Packers and Movers in Gurgaon So be expert like Professional and Efficient Packers and Movers in Gurgaon and let your pet be checked by a vet.

Kevinogi jhome Says:
04/19/2018 at 21:05pm
Manfred said he didn't know that the Marlins' new owners planned to tear it washington nationals jersers down
In the early moments of atlanta braves jersers the interview, Le Batard asked Manfred whether he knew prior to the recent sale to the group oakland athletics jersers fronted by Bruce Sherman and Jeter whether the new owners planned to slash payroll. After some prodding (and Le Batard's saying that the commissioner was lying), Manfred answered, "We do not get involved in operating-level decisions in the ownership approval process."

"We did not have player-specific plans from the Miami Marlins or any other team that has been in the ownership miami marlins jersers process. Those are decisions that the individual owners make, and they do not have to be cleared by us or approved by us. ... Those are local decisions that really are not part of the approval process. Those are decisions that the individual owners make, and they do not have to be cleared with us or approved by us."

Manfred went on to say that he didn't receive a payroll plan from the Marlins until two days prior to his interview with Le Batard. More: "We don't get into, are you going to trade 'Player X' or 'Player Y' at a particular point in time, nor do we ask them to make a commitment to people before they even got in and made an evaluation of their talent level, their ability to win with the people that st. louis cardinals jersers they have. That's just not how the ownership process works."
wholesale baseball jersers

But some of that may not be true
Here's a key excerpt from a los angeles angels of anaheim jersers must-read Barry Jackson piece in the Miami Herald:

A source directly involved in the Marlins sales chicago white sox jersers process, after hearing the Le Batard cincinnati reds jersers interview, said, via text: "Commissioner said was not aware of [Jeter] plan to slash payroll. Absolutely not true. They request and receive the operating plan from all bidders.

"Project Wolverine [the name for Jeter's plan] called chicago white sox jersers on his group to reduce payroll to $85 million. This was vetted and approved by MLB prior to approval by MLB. Every [Jeter] investor and non investor has the Wolverine financial plan of slashing payroll to $85 million. Widely circulated."

First off, "Project Wolverine" is ludicrously self-important and sinister-sounding, as budget strategies go. That's the name of a secret NSA laboratory deep under the Caballo Mountains in New Mexico, not a financial schematic. Do better, Jeets. Anyhow, there's enough careful phrasing in Manfred's comments ("operating-level decisions," "'Player X' or 'Player Y'") to give him some plausible deniability. However, the idea that he didn't know about plans to engage in yet another demo job by Marlins owners strains credulity.

wiatmppgryar wiatmppgryar Says:
04/18/2018 at 03:38am
Crabbe visits a job large simply by 41 items

The particular NBA regular-season video game once more, the particular Nets residence 114-105 success on the Bulls. Nets Crabbe ushered inside 26th special birthday nowadays, this individual have scored a job most of 41 items, Ding Weidi 20 items and also 7 Chris Maragos Jerseys facilitates, Russell 21 years old items and also 11 facilitates and also 6 rebounds; Darren Sproles Jerseys Connor Barwin Jerseys Bulls 7 folks have scored inside twice statistics, Kilpatrick of sixteen items, Portis Chuck Bednarik Jerseys 18 items and also 7 rebounds, Penn 15 items and also 6 facilitates, Justin : Hollett Chris Extended Jerseys 13 items and also some rebounds and also some facilitates.

The initial 1 / 4 exposed, a couple of moments and also 43 just a few seconds, Felicio nasty any time Crabbe photo, offering the particular Nets 3 totally free punches. Inside the 6 Derek Barnett Jerseys second and also thirty-six just a few seconds, Russell misplaced Corey Clement Jerseys the particular basketball simply by falling and also has been intercepted simply by Payne. Philadelphia Eagles Jerseys Inside 9 moments and also 21 years old just a few seconds, any time this individual acquired Russell's complete, Corning Pig Chance Warmack Jerseys have scored any three-point extended photo. The particular Bulls introduced any ridiculous bad recurring. This kind of 1 / 4, they will got 18 rebounds, which includes 6 bad rebounds. Noahba added 5 rebounds. The particular Nets enjoyed clean coordination. On this part, the particular staff accomplished 8 facilitates. Russell dispatched some moves Chase Daniel Jerseys regarding teammates. The particular Nets created any wall structure regarding straightener around the shielding conclusion. This kind of 1 / 4 dispatched some photos and also Corey Graham Jerseys photo the particular opposition's industry aim proportion to be able to 49. 86%. Together with three-pointers inside the Nets, the particular staff have scored of sixteen three-pointers this kind of 1 / 4, nevertheless the firing fee has been simply 37. 50%. This kind of area of the particular Nets is at an unhealthy express together with up to more effective problems. Inside the initial 1 / 4, the particular Nets got the particular direct 29-26.

Back the next 1 / 4, some moments and also 41 just a few seconds, Corningham facilitates, Russell struck any three-pointer. 6 moments and also 5 just a few seconds, Philadelphia Eagles acquired Russell's complete, Ding Weidi three-thirds extended photo prevailed. Inside the 9th and also 6 just a few seconds, Nouwa fouled Ding Weidi and also NFL Jerseys provided the particular Nets a couple of totally free chuck tries. The particular Bulls enjoyed clean coordination. On this part, the particular staff accomplished a complete regarding 9 facilitates. Holleith dispatched any teammate a couple of moves. The particular Nets bombarded the particular holder repeatedly, and also received 10 totally free punches, any charges regarding 9 targets plus a totally free chuck proportion regarding ninety days. 00%. Halftime, the particular report will be 62-55, as well as the Nets direct 7 items.

06/05/2010 at 13:03pm
As usual, excellent review and perspective on this release.
Many of us in the wireless business do use a Spectrum Analyzer and I for one use it very rarely. I see other manufacturers also jumping on the Spectrum bandwagon and I can't help but think that this might only be a tool for geeks. A spectrum analyzer is the most useful when you have a source of persistent interference that you need to track down or eliminate. There will be times, that since the infrastructure Spectrum Analyzer cannot identify that specific device, or even if it can identify it, you cannot find it or, do anything about it, so you lose access to that particular channel, and that's the end, frankly. There are other cases where it will identify a microwave and then it will go away. Cognio brought spectrum analysis to the masses, because it allowed people who have no clue how a spectrum analyzer works (like me), to seem mildly professional by being able to identify a particular device and hunt it down. The card cost like 3 to 4k and if we had any problems that we couldn't explain, that would be the first thing to get pulled out. If it could identify the device, we might be in luck and find it. It it either couldn't identify the device or even worse said "generic inteferer", we were pretty much stuck. It is even worse if it cannot find anything, at all. That is when the REAL wireless professionals had to be called in. Is this worth adding 200 to 500 dollars for each part, just for this feature that is needed a fraction of the time? Can't RRM detect a low noise floor and change channels already?
I saw a video with GTHill where he mentioned that the biggest thing causing wifi degradation is being unable to manage problems caused by regular 802.11 interference. I'm a strong believer of that. That would mean the money would be best spent improving the 802.11 medium handling instead of adding Spectrum Analysis which would require serious training and 200 to 500 more per access point to be effective, but only needed a fraction of the time. You would think that users would only want to add the 3500 series access points to their existing deployment to provide spectrum capability to what they have existing--not true. According to the post here: you will not get the full benefit unless you replace everything with a 3500 series access point.
If Cisco would say that they would be adding the spectrum functionality gratis to all users who have been paying smartnet all these years, that would make this perfect. To make them pay up to $500 extra for an AP ($1500 list in reality), more money to get the Aps that they just purchased yesterday unhung and replaced, is truly the Cisco premium.

05/12/2010 at 21:20pm
Great review, even better comments about your wife not liking the interference. Brings back memories...

Scott Swist Says:
05/10/2010 at 09:32am
Great Review!
Thanks Marcus!

05/01/2010 at 08:40am
Awesome Review!
Thanks Marcus!

04/28/2010 at 21:49pm
Social comments and analytics for this post...

This post was mentioned on Twitter by correaflavio: The Cisco Premium

04/28/2010 at 16:03pm
Thanks for all the kind words! It's a real honor, and a humbling experience.
Bruce, sorry to miss out on those points. Many of the comments that I made about CleanAir in Monitor mode also apply to Local mode APs (LMAP). With LMAP, when the AP is not processing Wi-Fi frames, it is listening for any and all RF (which includes Wi-Fi of course), and still categorizing RF interferers. As an LMAP, it is also serving clients, so it is only scanning its operating channel. It does not scan off-channel. Cool, eh?
I've only seen two radar spectrum captures with the 4.x version of Spectrum Expert, and neither radar signature was classified as such. Of course, I know that my version of 4.x is early-ish beta, so... let me see if I can get more information. I have heard that radar detection by the AP is significantly improved with CleanAir (I don't have the means to test this, but I certainly believe it, given the level of spectrum analysis resolution provided by Cognio), a fact that should help minimize false positive DFS events in UNII-2 and 2e bands.

04/28/2010 at 09:53am
Excellent review, Marcus! Long, but all of it very interesting. I too believe that this will be a significant feature addition; something that will help Cisco win a lot of major deals.
The only drawback I see here is that the APs are only monitoring from the ceiling level. Thus, the system might not discover everything that's interfering on the floor level.
But still, it's a great, great addition. Need to get a unit to test!

04/28/2010 at 09:40am
Marcus, excellent review. I cannot wait to get my hands on these. Thanks for covering the new products without the marketing spin.

04/27/2010 at 21:30pm
Does this mean that a 3500 AP can be in Local data-serving mode *and* continuously perform L1 spectrum monitoring? Does the AP still need perform off-channel scanning to achieve this? Any information on whether the Cognio 4.0 software has radar signature support?

04/27/2010 at 20:32pm
Great review. I don't think anyone at Cisco could have done a better job. Your POV is invaluable and your insight helps cut through the Cisco marketing fog (and noise).
Well done!

04/27/2010 at 20:32pm
Awesome review on the CleanAir AP 3500's, I really am quite stoked about the integration pieces into WCS (LBS for interference sources is nice, for starters). Cisco has been talking about the APs w/ integrated spectrum analysis for a couple of years now, and it looks like it was well worth the wait based on the amount of thought that has gone into CUWN v7.
At least in my experiences, there has always been a bit of a voodoo factor when it comes to hunting down interference sources, given that the SE platform w/ a laptop is temporary and mobile (I can't very well leave a laptop with an analysis engine lying around for days, even if it is tied down). The thought of having a long term solution in a fixed location to identify trends, and subsequent automated analysis is pretty sweet.
Nice article Marcus, and I look forward to reading the rest of your thoughts that didn't fit into this article in the near future!

Max Lopez Says:
04/27/2010 at 16:31pm
Hey Marcus,
That's a great review. I've been fortunate enough to evaluate this solution, and I have to agree that it's exciting a see a product like this come to market. I'm sure this will establish a trend which wireless administrators will line up for!
-Max Lopez

04/27/2010 at 16:22pm
This is an *excellent* review of the CleanAir AP - thanks for covering the new AP from soup to nuts!

Pete Nugent Says:
04/27/2010 at 15:09pm
Awesome, I am at Cisco tomorrow where they will be telling us all about
this but this is a great review, unfortunately I dont get to paly with all the toys.

<< prev - comments page 1 of 1 - next >>

Leave a Reply

Please login or sign-up to add your comment.
Success Stories

I literally just came out of the testing centre having taken the CWDP exam. The certification process opened my mind to different techniques and solutions. This knowledge can only broaden your perspective. Great job, CWNP, you have a great thing going on here.

Read More

Working through the CWNP coursework and certifications helped not only to deepen my technical knowledge and understanding, but also it boosted my confidence. The hard work it took to earn my CWNE has been rewarding in so many ways.

Read More

I want to commend you and all at CWNP for having a great organization. You really 'raise the bar' on knowing Wi-Fi well. I have learned a ton of information that is helping my job experience and personal career goals, because of my CWAP/CWDP/CWSP studies. Kudos to all at CWNP.

Read More