802.11 MAC Series – Basics of MAC Architecture – Part 1 of 3

802.11 MAC Series – Basics of MAC Architecture – Part 1 of 3

By CWNP On 01/08/2016 - 30 Comments

Welcome to the 802.11 series of blogs for beginners in the field of wireless networking. In this blog, we will discuss the basic components of the 802.11 MAC architecture.

The basic component of any network communication is data, which is in the form of packets, frames, or bits. A packet is a unit of data that is transmitted over the network, and contains routing information that helps it to reach its destination. The Network layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model uses the packets as a data unit. On the other hand, the frame is a unit of data used in the Data-Link layer of the OSI model. Frames contain information related to the flow control, frame synchronization, and error checking. A bit is a binary digit, 0 or 1, that is a basic unit of communication in the Physical layer of the OSI model.

Data is processed and transmitted from one device to another on a network. Internally, the data transmission starts from the Application layer of one device and travels to the Physical layer while adding some information to the data packet. When the data packet reaches the Physical layer, it is transferred as modulated bits on the medium, which may be wired or wireless.

As you may know, OSI model has seven layers, each layer appends some information to the data that is transmitted from the Application layer (Layer 7) to the Physical layer (Layer 1). At the Network layer (Layer 3), an IP header is prepended to the data that is received from the upper layers. At the Data-Link layer (Layer 2), a MAC header, including an address, is prepended to the data and the IP packet is encapsulated inside a frame. Once the frame moves to the Physical layer, PHY information is prepended to the frame. Finally, data is transferred as bits, which are binary digits: 0 and 1, at the Physical layer.

An 802.11 network deals with the following two layers of the OSI model:

Data-Link Layer

The Data-Link layer of the OSI model is categorized into two sublayers:

  • Logical Link Control (LLC): Contains data in the form of MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU). As mentioned earlier, data moves down from the Network layer to the Data-Link layer of the OSI model. But ideally, the Network layer directs data to the LLC sublayer of the Data-Link layer. The data received on the LLC sublayer comprises the MSDU, which is a data payload that includes IP packets, and LLC data. The LLC sublayer is the same for 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.11 (Wi-Fi), so it is not addressed specifically in our certifications.
  • Media Access Control (MAC): Creates a data frame in the form of MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) after receiving the MSDU. The MAC layer receives the MSDU from the LLC sublayer, and adds the MAC header information to it. This data frame is now called the MPDU. The following figure shows an 802.11 MPDU data frame.

The above figure shows that the MPDU data frame contains the three main components:

  • MAC Header: Contains information related to frame control, MAC addressing, duration, and sequence control.
  • Frame body: Contains information related to frame types or subtypes and the MSDU payload that is encrypted (when encryption is used). The frame body can vary in size for different 802.11 frames.
  • Frame Check Sequence (FCS): Contains a 32-bit cyclic-redundancy check (CRC) to verify the integrity of the MSDU data frames.

Now, the MPDU data frame is sent to the Physical layer from where the data frame is forwarded further to reach at the destination device.

Physical Layer

The Physical layer of the OSI model is categorized into two sublayers:

  • Physical Layer Convergence Procedure (PLCP): Contains the data in the form of PLCP Service Data Unit (PSDU), which is equivalent to the MPDU. The PLCP sublayer appends a preamble and PHY header information to the PSDU to make the PPDU. The preamble is additional bits that help in synchronizing the transmitting and receiving 802.11 communications.
  • Physical Medium Dependent (PMD): Accepts the PPDU from the PLCP sublayer and then modifies and transfers the data frames as bits.

The following figure shows the data moving between the Data-Link and Physical layers.

802.11n/High Throughput (HT) MAC Architecture

The 802.11n amendment also defined some new improvements to the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer for increased throughput and reduced overhead by using the frame aggregation methods. Frame aggregation was introduced after the 802.11n amendment (HT PHY). An analogy for frame aggregation is carpooling that is implemented to reduce traffic and subsequently reduce traffic jams. Similarly, frame aggregation is used to reduce medium contention overhead by combining several service data units (SDUs). The medium contention overhead is minimized by using the following methods of frame aggregation, which are:

A-MSDU

The first frame aggregation method is A-MSDU, where several MSDUs are combined into a single frame. An 802.11n access point uses A-MSDU aggregation and removes the headers and trailers from the received MSDUs, and combines these multiple MSDU payloads in to a single frame, which is known as A-MSDU and is further used for transmission across the wireless medium. The aggregated frame is encrypted using the Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) encryption method.

Each MSDU within the A-MSDU must be of the same 802.11e QoS access category. For example, A-MSDU can contain several MSDUs of Video access category only and it cannot be mixed with Best Effort or Voice MSDUs within the same aggregated frame.

A-MPDU

Another method of frame aggregation is A-MPDU, where several MPDUs are combined into a single frame for transmission. Each MPDU of A-MPDU has the same receiver address and data payload and each MPDU is encrypted using the CCMP encryption method. Similar to A-MSDU, each MPDU within the A-MPDU must be of the same 802.11e QoS access category. A-MPDU has more overhead than A-MSDU because each MPDU contains a MAC header and trailer details.

In the next blog, we will take a look at different types of 802.11 frames. Till then happy reading!!

Tagged with: CWNP, Wireless, Wi-Fi Certification, wifi certification, wireless certification, IT Professional, WLAN, WLAN Certification, CWTS, CWNA, CWAP, CWSP, CWDP, CWNE

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Kevinogi jhome Says:
04/18/2018 at 05:47am
Manfred said he didn't know that the Marlins' new owners planned to tear it washington nationals jersers down
In the early moments of atlanta braves jersers the interview, Le Batard asked Manfred whether he knew prior to the recent sale to the group oakland athletics jersers fronted by Bruce Sherman and Jeter whether the new owners planned to slash payroll. After some prodding (and Le Batard's saying that the commissioner was lying), Manfred answered, "We do not get involved in operating-level decisions in the ownership approval process."

"We did not have player-specific plans from the Miami Marlins or any other team that has been in the ownership miami marlins jersers process. Those are decisions that the individual owners make, and they do not have to be cleared by us or approved by us. ... Those are local decisions that really are not part of the approval process. Those are decisions that the individual owners make, and they do not have to be cleared with us or approved by us."

Manfred went on to say that he didn't receive a payroll plan from the Marlins until two days prior to his interview with Le Batard. More: "We don't get into, are you going to trade 'Player X' or 'Player Y' at a particular point in time, nor do we ask them to make a commitment to people before they even got in and made an evaluation of their talent level, their ability to win with the people that st. louis cardinals jersers they have. That's just not how the ownership process works."
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But some of that may not be true
Here's a key excerpt from a los angeles angels of anaheim jersers must-read Barry Jackson piece in the Miami Herald:

A source directly involved in the Marlins sales chicago white sox jersers process, after hearing the Le Batard cincinnati reds jersers interview, said, via text: "Commissioner said was not aware of [Jeter] plan to slash payroll. Absolutely not true. They request and receive the operating plan from all bidders.

"Project Wolverine [the name for Jeter's plan] called chicago white sox jersers on his group to reduce payroll to $85 million. This was vetted and approved by MLB prior to approval by MLB. Every [Jeter] investor and non investor has the Wolverine financial plan of slashing payroll to $85 million. Widely circulated."

First off, "Project Wolverine" is ludicrously self-important and sinister-sounding, as budget strategies go. That's the name of a secret NSA laboratory deep under the Caballo Mountains in New Mexico, not a financial schematic. Do better, Jeets. Anyhow, there's enough careful phrasing in Manfred's comments ("operating-level decisions," "'Player X' or 'Player Y'") to give him some plausible deniability. However, the idea that he didn't know about plans to engage in yet another demo job by Marlins owners strains credulity.

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Kendrys Morales out there together with hamstring tension

Philadelphia Eagles Jerseys BALTIMORE -- Glowing blue Jays chosen hitter/first baseman still left Friday night of video game contrary to the Orioles inside the the top of next inning as a result of drained proper hamstring. Rodney McLeod Jerseys Morales has been clinically determined to have any Level 1 tension regarding his / her hamstring, and also he has no less than in the short term regarded everyday. Stephen Tulloch Jerseys The particular seasoned slugger will be slated being re-evaluated from the Glowing blue Jays health-related employees about Thursday each time a a lot more defined routine regarding his / her go back will probably be proven Stefen Wisniewski Jerseys.

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John Hobbs Says:
06/12/2016 at 16:18pm
I'm a new member and I notice that Paul's question from 6 months ago had not been answered. Is that common here? I hope to use the blogs as an additional learning resource. Just curious...

Mohit Kalra Says:
01/14/2016 at 08:49am
-- Enabling A-MPDU helps in error checking - When in a Wi-Fi area with too many error rates
-- Enabling A-MPDU would come handy when there are many devices connected with the wireless AP as it reduces the overhead.
-- Disabling A-MPDU would be good in case of online gaming or VoIP where immediate transmission of data is required instead of an aggregated frame.

Paul Morris Says:
01/08/2016 at 18:16pm
So if you are using frame aggregation, A-MSDU in better than A-MPDU...

When would you use A-MPDU?

When would you chose to enable or disable frame aggregation
altogether ?

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